Cancer cells are able to metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body, by a process known as tumor cell invasion. This process allows cancer cells to break away from the primary tumor site and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, where they can travel to other organs and form new tumor growths.
There are a variety of ways that cancer cells can invade other tissues, but one of the most common is through a process known as proteolysis. Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. Cancer cells produce enzymes that can break down the proteins that make up the walls of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, allowing the cancer cells to pass through these vessels and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Once in the bloodstream or lymphatic system, cancer cells can travel to other organs, such as the liver, and begin to form new tumor growths. The liver is a common site of metastasis for many types of cancer, such asbreast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. This is because the liver is one of the most vascular organs in the body, meaning it has a large network of blood vessels that can easily transport cancer cells to its tissues.
There are a variety of factors that contribute to a cancer cell’s ability to metastasize, including its proteolytic activity, its ability to bind to blood vessels, and its ability to resist the body’s immune system. However, the exact mechanisms by which cancer cells metastasize are still not completely understood.
In a recent study, scientists have found the mechanism used by metastatic cancer cells to infiltrate the liver. This is an important discovery as it could lead to the development of new treatments for this type of cancer.
The liver is a common site for metastatic cancer, as it is the largest organ in the body and is full of blood vessels. Cancer cells can enter the liver through these vessels and start to grow. However, it is not easy for them to do this, as the liver has a number of defense mechanisms in place.
One of these mechanisms is the production of hepatocytes, which are cells that help to break down the cancer cells. However, in some cases, the cancer cells are able to evade this process and start to grow.
In the current study, the scientists used a process called transcriptome analysis to understand how the cancer cells were able to evade the hepatocytes. They found that the cancer cells produce a protein called CCL2, which attracts other cells to the area. These cells then help the cancer cells to invade the liver.
The scientists believe that this discovery could lead to the development of new treatments for metastatic cancer. In particular, they hope to develop drugs that can target the CCL2 protein and prevent it from attracting other cells. This would stop the cancer cells from being able to invade the liver and potentially save lives.